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时间:2017-12-18  来源:医界资讯网  作者:飞雪

  讨论部分总的要求:The author should tell the reader what the results mean by placing them in the context of previous published studies of the problem'即:与先有研究相比,本研究有何意义。 FTa医家园
A.  简要说明研究背景(background) FTa医家园
B.  简要介绍总的发现(general findings); FTa医家园
C.  介绍具体要点(introduction of points) FTa医家园
D.  与现有发现(若有)进行比较(comparison in the context of other studies) FTa医家园
E.  意义(suggested meaning) FTa医家园
F.  结论(conclusion) FTa医家园
G.  前瞻研究(future studies)FTa医家园

  结论往往是论文中最长也是最难写的部分,主要原因是作者要对研究结果和发现进行分析、推断、演绎和推理,要求作者具有很强逻辑思维能力和英语文字组织能力。此外,这部分时态比较复杂,要分清实验过程和结果(过去时)与分析意见(确定:现在时;不确定或假设:过去时)的区别;他人研究结果(过去时或现在完成时)与本研究结果(过去时)的区别;普遍适用的结论(现在时)与只适用本研究的结论(过去时)的其别等。因此,对于however' may' might' could' would' possibly' probably' be likely to 等词(组)的使用以及we believe (think / consider) that' to our knowledge' in our experience (practice) 等插入语的使用就显得格外重要。FTa医家园

  示例: FTa医家园
Parenteral nutrition is being used with increasing frequency as a primary source of caloric support in adult and pediatric patients with gastrointestinal problems. Numerous complications have been associated with the administration of TPN' including a significantly increased ncidence of gallbladder disease [3-5'7]. The data here suggest that cholecystectomy is often required for the management of symptomatic gallbladder disease in this group of patients' and is associated with significant risks.[说明研究背景,包括意义] Of the 35 patients who required cholecystectomy for TPN-induced gallbladder disease' operative morbidity and mortality were 54 percent and 11 percent' respectively. Maingot [8] has stated that cholecystectomy “is one of the simplest and safest of the abdominal operations' and is associated with a low operative mortality rate (about 0.5 percent). A review of the pediatric literature suggests that when cholecystectomy is performed in children' the operative morbidity is less than 10 percent' and the mortality is less than 1 percent. [8'9] Glenn [11] has reported a mortality rate of less than 0.1 percent in over 5'000 patients under the age of 50 years who underwent cholecystectomy. The morbidity and mortality observed in our group of receiving long-term TPN' therefore' were far in excess of what would be expected for a population of patients whose mean age was 29 years. FTa医家园
[提出本研究主要发现并将其与其他研究发现相比较] FTa医家园
Our data suggest that are specific factors unique to patients who require long-term TPN that contribute to the increased mortality and morbidity associated with cholecystectomy in this select group.[以下,作者用较大篇幅分析了这类病人死亡率和并发症增高的临床、实验室和手术等方面的原因,原文从略] FTa医家园
Based on the results of our studies' we believe that early cholecystectomy is indicated in patients with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Obviously' all patients with symptomatic disease should undergo cholecystectomy unless there specific medical contraindications. These operations should be performed in a timely' elective fashion because delay may result in the need for urgent surgery and thereby' increase an already high risk. Although recent studies have suggested that cholecystectoy may not be warranted in otherwise healthy patients with asymptomatic gallbladder disease [20]' we believe that this axiom does not apply to patieFTa医家园
nts with TPN-induced gallbladder disease. Out data suggest that the natural history of gallbladder disease in patients receiving TPN is considerably different from that of their counterparts not receiving TPN. Based on our findings' we recommend elective cholecystectomy in patients receiving TPN when gallstones first appear. Furthermore' cholecystectomy should be considered' especially in children without stones who are unFTa医家园
dergoing laparotomy for other reasons. [从对结果的分析及与其他研究的比较得出结论性意见,这是讨论部分最重要的内容 ] Whether TPN-induced gallstones can be prevented through daily stimulated gallbladder emptying awaits the results of further studies. [前瞻研究]FTa医家园

    总的要求:Always get approval of your intention to mention someone in the acknowledgement and approval of the form in which you will present the acknowledgement' 即:致谢词和致谢方式必须征得受谢人或单位的同意。FTa医家园

  参考文献 FTa医家园
    总的要求:Reference styles should be specific to each journal' 既:根据各杂志的具体要求,因为各杂志对参考文献部分的编排顺序和格式不尽统一。FTa医家园
1)  Vega KJ' Pina I' Krevsky B. Heart transplantation is associated with an increased risk for pancreatobiliary disease. Ann Intern Med 1996 Jun 1; 124(11): 980-3. [标准杂志文章] FTa医家园
2)  The Cardiac Society of Australia and New Zealand. Clinical excise stress testing:Safety and performance guidelines. Med J Aust 1996; 164: 282-4. [作者是个组织] FTa医家园
3)  Cancer in South Africa [editorial]. S Afr Med J 1984; 84: 15. [无作者名] FTa医家园
4)  Shen HM' Zhang QF. Risk assessment of nickel cardiogenicity and occupational lung cancer. Environ Health Perspect 1994; 102 Suppl 1: 275-82. [某杂志增刊] FTa医家园
5)  Browell DA' Lennard TW. Immunologic status of the cancer patient and the effects of blood transfusion on antitumor responses. Curr Opin Gen Surg 1993; 325-33 [无期无卷]FTa医家园

  插图说明 FTa医家园
总的要求:Type or point out legends for illustrations using double spacing' starting on a separate page' 既:插图说明要另页双行打印。当插图中有箭头(arrow)、符号(symbol)、数字(number)或字母(letter)时,要在这部分(不是在插图页上)对其方向、位置等作出非常明确的说明。FTa医家园

  插图 FTa医家园
总的要求:Design your figures for the appropriate reduction' 即:插图要按杂志的版面大小比例进行压缩;不要把插图拍成照片。FTa医家园

  表格 FTa医家园
总的要求:A table should be a totally self-contained unit of information' 即:表格要作为一个独立的信息单位另页打印。表格要简明清楚,完整(标题、内容和脚注),即使只有一张表格也要标Table 1。 FTa医家园

  图片和说明 FTa医家园

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